The problem of iodine insufficiency during pregnancy has troubled me for years. So much so that I spoke at length about this in pregnancy book that I wrote as well as the fertility book. Now there is a very brief video made by Dr. Michael Greger that explains this problem more articulately than I ever did with simple recommendations—check your prenatal vitamin! Only about half contain this nutrient that is so important for your baby to build a healthy brain. http://nutritionfacts.org/video/iodine-supplements-before-during-and-after-pregnancy/?utm_source=NutritionFacts.org&utm_campaign=94b0f568b9-RSS_VIDEO_WEEKLY&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_40f9e497d1-94b0f568b9-23307533
Coffee has remained a matter of debate and controversy for some time in the fertility world. Initially it was thought to promote miscarriages and reduce uterine blood flow. Newer data is suggesting that it can reduce the risk of diabetes and may actually promote arterial blood flow. Until more information is obtained or you have been specifically advised by your provider to abstain from coffee; practice moderation or consider tea! Here’s a great video to bolster your confidence. http://nutritionfacts.org/video/coffee-and-artery-function/
There is a a growing body of evidence that the outdated idea that soy inhibits fertility needs to be abandoned. There are too many studies now that have found the exact opposite. Here is one just published regarding women with PCOS: http://www.medpagetoday.com/endocrinology/metabolicsyndrome/59561
Writing about nutritional choices is tricky. One author recently compared our dietary choices as being like our own personalized religion. We’re all born into certain dietary patterns. Then as we grow, we either accept or modify these choices based upon our own belief as well as our own personal preference. Unfortunately today, many of the fad diets are like dietary cults—people not only want to make their own choice but they encourage others to embrace their decision as well. Unfortunately, most of these popularized diets are based upon scientific rhetoric. They often use encouraging language and small bits of science (often taken out of context) to try to create a compelling message. They want you to join them. As a scientist and a as a physician, I find this troubling because it often has a negative impact upon the care of my patients. For example, let’s consider gluten.
Gluten is a combination of proteins found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and various other grains. It has become a very prominent part of our diet because these proteins help dough to rise and retain their shape in baked goods. Although gluten has been vilified by some recent nutritional gurus; many foods that contain these proteins have major health benefits. These whole grain foods are attributed with a lower risk of developing obesity, diabetes, heart disease and various types of cancer. It is estimated that about 1-2% of us may have a true allergy or autoimmune disease (Celiac disease) as a reaction to these proteins. So let’s consider the possible health benefit for the other 98% of the population.
Gluten is also a prebiotic. Prebiotics are the nutrients necessary to help the healthy bacteria thrive within your body. A common reason that many people today are taking probiotics is because their diet is not providing these healthy bacteria the nutrients that they need to survive. However, taking a probiotic is not sustainable without feeding these healthy bacteria so they can thrive. There is also evidence that gluten can be an immune booster.
Natural Killer cells (NK cells) are part of your body’s immune system. Despite their ominous sounding name, they serve a sort of security role. They are responsible for identifying and eliminating dangerous invaders like virus infected cells and potential tumor cells—they keep you healthy. Ironically, they also serve a critical role in promoting pregnancy. When functioning properly, they enhance the ability of an embryo to implant and thrive. New studies are now demonstrating that gluten can actually facilitate healthy NK cell activity. Whatever the reason, there is convincing evidence that gluten containing whole grains are associated with higher pregnancy rates in patients that are trying to conceive.
Patients undergoing IVF provide a unique opportunity to study interventions in a closely monitored setting. Recently, the impact of eating whole grains was investigated at Harvard University as part of the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) study. In this study they were tracking whole grain content by following the diets of women going through IVF treatment. They found that women that were eating more whole grains had a higher pregnancy rate and a higher live birth rate (53% vs. 35%) than those eating little or no whole grains. In fact, at least one serving per day of a whole grain food was able to boost the odds of success by about 33%. Another recent study that was looking at comprehensive dietary patterns and success during Advanced Reproductive Treatment (ART) found that women eating whole grain cereals had about a 30% greater chance of fertilization and early embryo development and an almost a 60% greater chance of becoming pregnant. Finally when researchers measured the urine for a marker of whole grain food consumption in a healthy population of fertile women they found that those eating more gluten containing foods took fewer months to conceive naturally. Taken together, it seems that we should encourage women that are not truly allergic to gluten to eat more whole grain as part of their fertility boosting diet.
We’re all frightened by what we don’t understand. Many infectious diseases feed in to that fear. Consider for example the recent media frenzy over Ebola Virus; then again over Bird Flu and then more recently over Chikungunya—all of which have died down without the nightmare scenarios coming to fruition. Now we’re focusing on Zika virus. This is admittedly scary due to its possible link to birth defects in babies born in Brazil. So let’s review what we know, what we don’t know AND what we can do in the meantime.
Recently the Society of Maternal-Fetal-Medicine held a special session to review this important topic and provide updated advice and guidance for women’s healthcare specialists in the USA. Zika is a virus transmitted by mosquitos. Those developing a symptomatic infection during pregnancy may be at high risk of having a child with a birth defect known as microcephaly. Although this link has not yet been definitively established it is recommended that we provide very close surveillance of any suspected cases while additional information is gathered. Although this sounds scary here are some of the key facts to keep in mind:
- Only 1 in 5 people bitten by an infected mosquito is likely to develop an infection
- Those infected have pretty specific symptoms including sore joints, a rash and conjunctivitis (red, swollen areas around the eyes)
- The infection will appear within one or two weeks of the mosquito bite
- The current test available is nonspecific and can create concerns due to false-positive results (a positive test due to a related virus that has not been linked with birth defects)
- The Center for Disease Control and Prevention is monitoring places in the world known to have active Zika transmission for travelers and advising those that are pregnant or planning pregnancy to avoid traveling to those locations
- Meanwhile, alternate causes of the fetal malformations are being investigated including a possible link to an insecticide widely used to control mosquitos in the area of Brazil most heavily effected by fetal microcephaly
Clearly we need to learn more about the Zika virus. In the meantime, here is some practical advice for patients that want to become pregnant:
- If possible avoid traveling to areas effected by Zika for at least one month prior to starting fertility treatment
- During mosquito season (as well as while traveling to effected areas) consider the following protective steps
- Wear long sleeves when possible and stay in air conditioned facilities (rather than using open windows for cooling
- Use insect repellants to reduce the risk of mosquito bites. Here are two that are among the safest (and least toxic) for women trying to conceive:
- If you live in an area with a high rate of Zika virus exposure, consider undergoing fertility treatment and freezing the embryos for delayed embryo transfer–a process known as embryo banking.
- If you develop the symptoms of rash, joint pain and red eyes, contact your healthcare provider to discussed current recommendations on testing.
- Stay informed. If you subscribe to this blog, I will do my best to remain current on this topic.
For the latest updated information from the CDC on this emerging problem, check out the following link: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/
Latest Update 02/29/2016: “It’s entirely possible there’s something else going on in Brazil — something unique to the population or environment in which transmission takes place.” – Dr. Anthony Fauci, Direct of National Institute for Allergy and Infectious disease
One of the most frustrating questions for women trying to conceive is “what can I do to improve my chances?” Given that women are born with every egg that they will ever have, there are a limited number of ways to optimize the health of the remaining eggs. But for those that are motivated, I have described steps like the use of Acai berry extract and CoQ10 as well as improved sleep and Vitamin D. Now for the first time, there is evidence that some women may be able to improve the responsiveness of their ovaries in as little as one month!
The typical diet of people living in the USA has changed dramatically over the last century. One glaring example has been in the type of fats that we consume on a daily basis. Essential dietary fats—those that we must get from foods because our bodies can’t make them—are typically classified as Omega-6 and as Omega-3 and serve many important physiologic functions. The ideal ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 is 1-to-1. However, the typical Western diet—popular amongst most Americans—has a ratio as high as 25-to-1. The result of this unhealthy shift is that many people are eating foods that promote inflammation. This unhealthy shift is associated with a higher risk of heart disease, diabetes, cancer and infertility.
Given that it’s not easy to encourage people to make lasting dietary changes, a recent study looked at the effects of starting a high potency omega-3 fatty acid supplement upon ovarian function and hormone balance. For this study, they put 27 women on a 4 gram supplement and measured their FSH levels before and 30 days after starting this program. Even within this short time frame—effectively one menstrual cycle—they found a dramatic improvement in the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio. Their inflammatory markers improved and their FSH levels dropped. Given that FSH level is considered a marker of ovarian sensitivity; this result is interpreted to mean that their ovaries were more sensitive and thus more fertile.
A cautionary note; they did not find an improved ovarian sensitivity in the women in the study that were obese. It is possible that with longer time and with weight loss, obese women might also experience improved fertility. Obesity has been linked to worsening infertility as well as resistance to some of the treatments offered to normal weight women. It is theorized that obesity itself produces inflammatory chemicals in the body which in turn trigger a state of hormone imbalance. In act, it was discovered that all of the women in the study—including the women that were obese—had improved markers of glucose metabolism. That suggests that the omega-3 fatty acids could help reduce the risk of diabetes and maybe make it easier to lose weight as well.
Another important benefit of omega-3 fatty acids is that they can reduce oxidative stress. That means that consuming these healthy dietary fats can reduce the risk of DNA damage to a woman’s eggs—another important fertility promoting benefit. So although this was a small study and needs to be confirmed in a longer time period, you don’t need to wait. Make this health promoting change in your fertility promoting plan now. Here are a few practical suggestions:
- Switch to a low-fat diet plan taking care to avoid animal fats when possible
- Use products at home that include healthy omega-3 fatty acids instead of butter
- Incorporate more olive oil, Flax seeds and tree nuts into your daily diet
- Start taking a daily supplement—preferably a plant based one (rather than fish oil) like those made by Life’s DHA
- IMPORTANT NOTE TO MEN: Emerging evidence suggests that increasing your omega-3 fatty acid consumption can improve sperm shape (teratospermia) as well!!
For decades, “family planning” was synonymous with contraception. The Guttmacher Institute—a prominent reproductive health think tank—stated that “controlling family timing and size can be a key to unlocking opportunities for economic success, education and equality” for women. In fact, their most recent analysis concluded that effective contraception has contributed to increasing women’s earning power and narrowing the gender pay gap. Whether it’s for these reasons or not, studies have consistently demonstrated that many women are choosing to delay childbearing. The age at first birth for women is now approaching 28 year of age and the birth rate in the USA is at an all time low. As more women choose to delay (or extend) their reproductive years, it is important that more women become aware of the potential benefit of oocyte freezing. In a recent study called “Baby Budgeting” one research group described this technique of freezing/storing eggs as a “technologic bridge” from a woman’s reproductive prime to (her) preferred conception age.
Today egg freezing has made it possible for women to truly “plan their family” by storing eggs for later use. The first successful pregnancy from frozen eggs was reported in 1986. But for decades the process remained very inefficient; requiring about 100 eggs for each successful pregnancy. Therefore the procedure was considered experimental and primarily offered to women that were faced with chemotherapy, radiation or other fertility-robbing treatments used to treat serious illnesses. But with the development of more effective techniques for freezing eggs; success rates in many centers using frozen eggs is as good as it is with using fresh eggs. As a result of this improvement in pregnancy rates, the American Society of Reproductive Medicine lifted the “experimental” label from egg freezing and began supporting its use for social (rather than medical) reasons. Recently, two different studies determined that the most common reason for women to seek egg freezing as a means of protecting their fertility was the “lack of a current partner.” That said, Facebook and Apple have made egg freezing available to their employees and many predict other companies to follow this trend as well. As more women consider this option of preserving their fertility, there are several questions that they should think about in order to create an individualized plan.
For practical reasons, the process of creating a fertility plan should be tailored to a woman’s current age, how many children she would like to have and her current ovarian reserve. Existing guidelines suggest that if a woman is in good health, less than 31 years old and with a normal ovarian reserve—she should wait and reevaluate her situation every one to three years. On the other end of the spectrum, if a woman is over 38 years of age she should consult with a board certified reproductive endocrinologist to discuss her options. So the women that are typically the most suitable candidates for egg freezing are women between 31 and 38 years of age that are seeking to delay pregnancy for at least 2 years. The “Baby Budgeting” study found these are the patients for whom the procedure is most cost-effective. A similar study found that based upon successful pregnancy rates women should ideally freeze their eggs by 35 to 37. Testing a woman’s ovarian reserve however is the critical factor in customizing these recommendations.
Ovarian reserve represents the best estimate of how fertile a woman is compared to other women of the same age. It is usually tested by means of a blood test and/or a properly timed ultrasound examination of her ovaries. Sometimes, this test reveals that a young healthy woman may have a fewer number of fertile eggs remaining than would be otherwise expected. That’s why this test is so important. It can inexpensively identify if someone should consider egg freezing prior to the 32-38 year old age range. This test is also predictive of how many eggs a woman is likely to produce in a single egg-freezing cycle. The current recommendation is that women should try to have 15 to 20 eggs available for each one or two pregnancies that she hopes to have. Many women will produce this number in a single egg-freezing cycle whereas others may need to go through the process two or three times in order to bank this many eggs. Once properly frozen, the eggs are generally considered as fertile on the day that they are thawed as they were on the day that they were frozen—effectively prolonging fertility for 10 years or longer.
Each egg frozen is estimated to have a 2 to 12% chance of producing a live birth. That’s the reason that it is recommended that women store a larger number of eggs than the number of children that she hopes to have. Doing so improves the odds of having several that are of good quality. Since a woman’s age serves as an estimate of her egg quality, online databases can provide estimates of a successful live birth based on a few simple questions. So now it is a lot easier for women that aren’t quite ready to become pregnant to create a proactive family plan that fits in with the rest of her personal and professional goals.
Here’s brief segment on Egg Freezing from Colorado & Co
Most women are aware that their fertility declines more rapidly than other—often more visible—signs of aging. In fact, the ovaries have very unique properties. They begin a prolonged hibernation-like state from infancy until the start of puberty. During this ten to fourteen year period, the ovaries remain inactive; producing neither hormones nor mature eggs. However, there are still biological signs of aging taking place within the resting ovary but at a much slower pace than after the menstrual cycles begin. Then throughout the reproductive years a group of eggs is lost each month. In some women—depending on their diet and lifestyle—eggs may be lost at a faster pace. This happens for instance in women that use tobacco products. As I’ve written about previously, the blood test for the hormone AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH) is considered by most fertility specialists today to be the most reliable assessment of a woman’s ovarian reserve (the approximate number of immature eggs that she has available at any given time). Now there are also new ways to actually measure how we age physiologically as well.
One study recently demonstrated that people do age at variable rates. They quantified the aging process by measuring various physiologic and genetic markers over a 12 year period in 954 individuals beginning at age 26. They correlated their findings with each test subject’s appearance and their quality of life. They found that those that appeared to be aging faster also had measureable changes in their physiology, cognition and physical complaints consistent with their appearance. The researchers also analyzed their DNA. Their analysis supported that some individuals were aging faster than others and that diet and lifestyle seemed to be a major influence on the rate of aging. In fact, some people seemed to age 3 years for each 1 year that passed on the calendar while others didn’t seem to be aging at all during the 12 years of the project. So taking steps to improve your health and wellness may in fact slow your rate of aging. However, there are still some changes taking place that can’t be delayed indefinitely.
In most species, females are able to conceive throughout their natural lifespan. Humans are unique from most other mammals in that women typically live about half of their life after their fertility has ceased. It has also been reported that women that conceive later in life tend to live longer. Efforts to look at the genetic relationship have found that there are 17 genetic markers that explain about 30% of the occurrence of premature ovarian failure. That means that most ovarian aging is related to other factors including damage to the egg’s DNA (telomere length) that naturally occurs over time. There are also changes that occur in the egg’s power house, the mitochondria. Each egg has 20,000 to 800,000 of these important power units. Each mitochondrion has its own small strand of DNA. We inherit all of our mitochondria from our mother. As women age, the DNA of mitochondria within the eggs becomes damaged. This damage cannot be repaired. As a result, the mitochondria are intimately linked to egg quality. They not only impact the chance that an egg will fertilize and grow successfully but also the health of the child that results. There are also other ways that delaying pregnancy may influence the child’s health but in a more positive way. There is considerable evidence that children born to older mothers may have more positive cognitive and behavioral outcomes.
There is a growing trend for women to delay childbearing. Doing so is associated with higher socioeconomic status, increased educational achievement, higher income level and smaller family size. It may be due to any or all of these reasons or it may be due to greater readiness for pregnancy or more that children of older mothers tend to fair better when it comes to cognitive and behavioral measures. Others feel that it may due to a more mature mother-child interaction. Whatever the reason the benefits are present without any elevated risks in psychiatric problems. So even though cause and effect cannot be established in the available studies, advanced maternal age seems to have a protective effect upon the psychological and cognitive development of children. Now there is also evidence that carrying a pregnancy may in turn have healthy implications on the aging of the mother as well.
A new series of investigations is finding that a healthy pregnancy may slow aging process. In animal studies, it has been a consistent finding that pregnancy has a rejuvenating effect upon mother through a process called parabiosis (connecting the circulation between the young and the old). In humans, studies have found measureable benefits including improved liver functioning, improved reparative abilities within the central nervous system and protective effects upon the heart following a healthy pregnancy. There is also data suggesting that unhealthy pregnancies can identify women at risk of age-related conditions like diabetes, stroke and heart disease—possibly identifying those at risk so that preventive measures can be initiated. So it seems that healthy women have a longer opportunity to conceive and that when women in their later years get pregnant that they remain healthier longer.
In summary, the links between fertility and healthy aging are far more complicated than previously believed. We can reassure women that taking steps during their younger years to live a healthy lifestyle should optimize their opportunities for pregnancy. We can not only track a woman’s fertility status through ovarian reserve testing but now we can also freeze/store eggs to extend their reproductive years. Then, by taking steps to optimize a women’s health during pregnancy, women may both have a healthier child as well as slow their own aging.
Let’s take a few moments to review some of the latest findings in reproductive medicine. This month there is another first in reproductive medicine as well as new evidence that hormone problems may be passed to spouses. Check out the following:
Ovarian Stimulation for IVF does not increase the risk of cancer: The largest review of the data available provides more reassuring news to women undergoing advanced reproductive treatment. Included in their review was the information obtained from nearly 180,000 women that had undergone IVF therapy. They found that there was no increased risk of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer or breast cancer. Although a few isolated studies raised concerns in the past; this new information should further reassure patients and egg donors of that ovarian stimulation will not create future health risks.
First successful birth after woman receives her own ovarian tissue frozen during her childhood: In a new report, it has been proven that ovarian tissue from a child can be removed, frozen and replaced later in her life to restore lost fertility. Previously there have been about 3 dozen cases of women freezing ovarian tissue prior to receiving life-saving chemotherapy. However this was the first report a 14 year old having her fertility preserved through removing an ovary prior to the onset puberty and before receiving chemotherapy. Now at age 27—and two years after a piece of her ovary was transplanted back into her body—she conceived and delivered a healthy child naturally. This proof-of-concept should make fertility preservation a more tangible option for children faced with the need for chemotherapy.
Diet and lifestyle impact embryo quality: A research group recently looked at the quality of 2659 embryos produced by 269 patients. They had data on the diet and some of the social habits of the women that were undergoing treatment as well. They found that eating fruit, vegetables and fish was associated with higher embryo quality. By contrast consumption of red meat, smoking and alcohol reduced the chances that an embryo would develop to the blastocyst stage—the last stage before it hatches. They also found that women that consumed red meat have a lower chance for implantation as well. This is only one study so patients shouldn’t feel compelled to make dramatic dietary changes. However, it should encourage women trying to conceive to pay greater attention to their diet and lifestyle.
Fathers at risk of diabetes after their partners experience Gestational Diabetes: As we continue to seek to prevent new cases of diabetes, an emerging risk factor may be having a partner with a history of gestational diabetes. A study from Canada followed nearly 72,000 male partners after the delivery of their child. They found that the risk of developing diabetes was 33% higher following a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes vs. normal controls. The authors theorized that this increased risk may be likely due to shared diet/lifestyle as well as ethnocultural risks. If confirmed however it could provide support that counseling the entire family to prevent later risk may be in order.
Sunshine boosts IVF success: Many studies have looked at seasonal variations on pregnancy rates and tried to explain their fluctuations. But a new study from Belgium has taken their analysis a step further. They looked at a group of almost 11,500 women undergoing IVF at the same center between 2007 and 2013. They then analyzed what the weather was like the month prior to their cycle. Although they did not find a clear seasonal pattern; they did find that women exposed to more sunlight the month prior to their IVF cycle had a higher pregnancy rate. This boost in success translated to about a one third higher chance of conceiving. The authors theorized that the boost might be related to higher melatonin and vitamin D production. The strongest correlation was actually with live birth rate.
Men with low-normal testosterone levels have high rate of depressive symptoms: There has been a recent trend to check testosterone levels in men; most likely due to media attention and advertising. This prompted a group of researchers to study whether or not there was a higher rate of depression and/or depressive symptoms in people requesting such testing. They screened 200 men with an average age of 48 (range 20 to 77) with a validated symptom questionnaire. They found 56% screened positive. In fact, the risk that a man experienced depressive symptoms seemed highest for the younger men with low-normal testosterone levels. Follow up studies are needed to determine if testosterone replacement—instead of traditional antidepressants—would relieve these symptoms.
Robert Greene, MD, is a reproductive endocrinologist with Conceptions Reproductive Associates in Denver.
Whenever someone asks me “what else can we do to boost our chances?” it represents one of the most exciting and challenging moments of our interaction. It’s exciting because it shows a willingness to make changes in their current diet and/or lifestyle. It’s challenging because there are no simple answers and most of the data is rather loosely supportive of the recommendations. Fortunately better studies are coming out all the time.
The January 2015 Issue of the journal Fertility & Sterility put this topic front and center. The journal opened with a commentary that pointed out the fact that each egg–even those from fertile egg donors–has no more than a 40% chance of becoming a successful pregnancy. Therefore, we need to look beyond what we do with the sperm and eggs and also direct our attention toward what else can impact their quality. A “global medicine approach” proposes that we look at the nutritional status, environment and lifestyle for additional answers and better outcomes. The journal went on to present three papers to bring us closer to that goal.
The first study looked at infant birthweight and the risk–several decades later–of male factor infertility. Specifically, they were looking at the theory that some male infertility begins in the womb prior to birth. Other studies have found results suggesting this happens for women; that low birthweight may increase the risk of longer time to conception and a higher risk of diminished ovarian reserve. That prompted this research to determine if the same might be true in men. It was. They found that men that were born with a birthweight less than 2,500 gm (normal is 2,500 to 3,500 gm at term) were at a higher risk of having a low sperm count and their sperm was more likely to have damaged DNA. They also tended to be overweight or obese which is also associated with male factor infertility. So nutrition during pregnancy can have lasting implications for the children that are born.
A second article summarized the concept of “ecofertlility;” environmental toxins that may alter fertility. The examples that they focused on were those that were most common and most easily controlled, tobacco and marijuana since there is typically a choice to use or not use these substances. The authors reviewed a variety of studies that consistently demonstrate that women that are cigarette smokers tend to take about a year longer to conceive, have a higher rate of infertility and are more likely to have a diminished ovarian reserve than nonsmokers. Men were impacted similarly. Male smokers had a higher risk of abnormal semen analysis as well as a higher rate of erectile dysfunction. The authors also presented evidence that various substances produced by tobacco smoke appear in the fluid that surrounds the eggs and then have a very toxic impact. These substances may actually result in a higher rate of failed fertilization. This may explain why smokers have about a 40% lower pregnancy rate when undergoing IVF than nonsmokers. Even with sperm injection (ICSI) directly into the egg; the rate of “fertilization failure” is about three times higher in smokers. The impact of marijuana was more difficult to quantify. In men it has been linked to a higher risk of sperm abnormalities, as well as various hormonal dysfunctions including gynecomastia (increase in breast size), low libido and problems with erectile dysfunction. There is less data on women as exposure is difficult to accurately assess and monitor and correlate with egg function since exposure now may impact an egg many months (or even years) later.
Finally, in a third paper they reviewed the potential impact of one of the most widely studied chemicals that we’re all exposed to called bisphenol-A (BPA). This chemical was first produced in 1891. It was identified to have estrogen-like activity as far back as 1936. Unfortunately, that did not stop its production and distribution. Today it is recognized as one of the most ubiquitous hormone disrupting chemicals. About 20% of the BPA produced—nearly 3.4 million tons per year—is used to line various food containers. From there, it has clearly been shown to leech into the food that we eat and then contribute to various health problems like diabetes, obesity, heart disease, lung problems, kidney disorders as well as various reproductive problems. The data on its toxicity has been alarming enough to prompt Canada from banning its use in baby bottles (2008). More recently the European Union went a step further and banned its use entirely in 2011. Here in the US, there is just now legislation proposed to require clear labeling on food containers that contain BPA. The study authors went on to provide a further note of caution by providing evidence that two chemicals that have been proposed to replace it—BPS and BPF—may have similar negative effects based upon animal data. Human studies are pending. The bottom line is that we need to pay more attention to the chemicals that we use to package our food in as they may actually taint our food supply as well as reduce our health and fertility.
As a reproductive health specialist, I don’t want to alarm my patients but I also don’t want to marginalize the potential impact of our choices upon our ability to initiate a healthy pregnancy. Although walking the line between concern and unnecessarily upsetting people may be a delicate one; I do feel compelled to empower those that are willing to listen. Success is not just about what happens in the clinic—it begins at home.